How to Make Beer

If you're thinking about brewing homemade beer for the first time, the process can seem a bit intimidating. Looking at a recipe, there’s all sorts of special words and terms you might not know, like what exactly is the difference between an all-grain and partial mash? 

But don’t fret, once you get going it’s really not all that hard to make great tasting refreshing beer at home, and it can be as simple or scientific as you want it to be. In this post we’ll take you step by step through the beer making process, looking at:

  • The basic ingredients that go into all beers
  • The necessary equipment and set-up
  • The various methods and products available to make beer with
  • The basic process of brewing the beer itself

Beer Ingredients 

The world of beer is an incredibly diverse one. Beer can be pale, bitter, black, sweet, fruity, refreshing, or savoury. However, no matter the kind, all beer shares the same basic 4 ingredients that determine its look, taste, and feel: 

  1. yeast
  2. fermentable grain-based sugar
  3. hops 
  4. water 

Playing around with any one of the ingredients changes the style of beer that’s made. Here’s a run-down of what each ingredient is, and the importance of it in beer making. 

Beer Yeast

Beer by definition is a fermented alcoholic beverage, usually made from grain and hops. Yeast is the key ingredient to create alcohol. Simply put, yeast is a living organism that, in brewing, is used to convert (or eat up) the sugar in wort (unfermented beer) to produce alcohol. As this happens, flavours change and sweet malted grain water (wort) can be turned into beer. In beer making there are numerous different styles of  beer yeast that can greatly affect the overall character of the beer. In fact, different types of yeast are responsible for the split in styles of beer, namely ales and lagers. 


  • Ales - What makes an ale an “ale” is that it has been fermented with an ale yeast. That’s it. There are many kinds of ales, all very different from one another. From dark rich porters to light blondes, but what ties them together is the type of yeast. Ale yeasts are a traditional type of yeast, they are a top fermenting yeast which ferment near the top of the container and usually do well in warmer temperatures. They often produce a fruity or earthy flavour in beer and are further broken down into many different styles suitable for different recipes. 
  • Lagers - As you may guess, what makes a lager a “lager” is that it has been fermented with a lager yeast. Lagers in general tend to be on the lighter side and have a crisp clean flavour due to the qualities of a lager yeast. Unlike ale yeasts, they ferment near the bottom of a vessel and ferment better in cool conditions. Also known as “lagering”

    Danny's offers all different styles of dry beer yeasts 

    We also have a beer yeast chart to compare specific beer styles 

    Fermentable Grain-based Sugar

    Yeast and hops play a role in determining the style and bitterness of the beer you’re making, but the fermentable sugars are where you get the bulk of the flavour and texture in the beer. Before we get into the specifics of these sugars, it will be helpful to explain some terms first:

    • Grain - Grains are the fruits of grasses. They are generally small hard seeds that can be used for a variety of cooking purposes. Some examples are corn, barley, and wheat. Grains are not generally capable of fermentation without processing them by “malting.”

    Picture of grain

  • Barley - Barley is a specific type of grain that is used most commonly in beer making. Like with grains in general, it cannot be used in fermentation unless first malted and then boiled into a wort. As mentioned above, wort is the unfermented sweet malted grain water before it becomes beer.
  • Malted Barley vs Unmalted Barley

    • Malt – Unlike fruit-based sugars used in wine, grain-based sugars aren’t naturally fermentable right off the plant. That means that while they have some sugar in them, it has more starch - and yeast can’t digest starch very well that then converts into alcohol. For the barley grain to become "fermentable", grains have to be “malted” which in general terms is the process of sprouting and then toasting them. When you hear the word malt or malt extract, its referring to a fermentable grain-based sugar. Different malts are based on the grain that was malted, and also the drying and toasting process that was used. Malted barley, for instance, can be both light or dark and roast dependent on how it is malted.  
      • Base Malt - When you see or hear the term “base malt,” it refers to the primary fermentable malt in your recipe. There can be many kinds of malts - or sugars - in a recipe, but the one of the greatest amount is referred to as the ‘base malt.’ 
      • Specialty/Secondary Malt - In contrast to the base malt, these are simply other malts that are used in a recipe to add a particular flavour, colour, or texture to the beer. For instance a malt called "roasted barley" and "chocolate malt" are often used in Stouts to create it’s signature dark colour. 

    Stout beer

    • Adjunct - An adjunct is simply an additive to a beer recipe that does not classify as a secondary malt. They can be pretty much anything from oatmeal to oranges. Adjuncts are used to give beer a more specific character. 

    Now that we have some of the terminology taken care of, let’s get into the four main categories of grain-based sugars:

    • Malted grains
    • Liquid malt extract
    • Dry malt extract
    • Dextrose 

    Malted Grains - Barley, Rye, Wheat

    Malted grains are the ultimate source of grain-based sugar, as they are, in fact, grains. All other types of malt extract originate from this initial source. Malted grains come in several different styles and there are an infinite number of combinations to create recipes from. To use malted grains in brewing you have to extract the sugar from them by milling and then a process called mashing. This is explained in more detail under the Beer Making Process section. 

    Liquid Malt Extract (LME)

    Liquid malt extract is a syrupy sugar substance (say that 3 times fast) that has been extracted from the grains. It comes in a variety of styles for various recipes. The purpose behind liquid malt extract is that it’s easy to use, because you can skip the milling and mashing stages when brewing. Instead, you simply have to blend well with water. 

    Dry Malt Extract (DME)

    Dry Malt extract is a powdery sugar substance that has been extracted from the grains. Like liquid malt, it also comes in a variety of styles based on colour and depth. It is also designed for ease of use because it is blended in with water. 


    Dextrose is a corn based sugar that is often used to supplement malt sugars in beer recipes and kits - a sweeter wort can result in a stronger beer. It is also less expensive than malt sugars. Dextrose has a more neutral flavour in comparison to other sugars and does not really add anything to a recipe besides the sugar/potential alcohol. 



    Hops are the next most important recipe in beer making. Not only do they dictate the bitterness in beer, they also can add a depth of flavour as different strands are noted for their citrus, pine, or floral notes. Virtually all beer contains hops to balance the malt sugars, even if it is not in a large amount. 

    Hops are the flower of the hop plant and there are several strands of them grown all over the world for specific flavours. They are available in leaf and pellet form, and are often preserved in the freezer. The main thing to keep in mind when choosing hops for beer brewing is their “Alpha Acid” content. Alpha acids are what create the bitterness in beer when boiled into a wort. The higher the alpha acid content, the more bitterness you will get out of the hop. Alpha acids take some time and heat to extract, and different hops can be added at different stages of the brewing process. This leads into different terms:

  • Bittering Hops - Bittering hops do not refer to any specific type of hop, but rather, at what time a hop is added to boiling wort. In other words, any hop can be a bittering hop if its added early in the boiling phase. Bittering hops are named “bittering” because when added in with your grain-based sugar, you can extract a lot of the alpha acids in them which cause a bittering of the beer to balance the malt. The outcome of this is that a lot of their unique aroma and flavour is boiled away. 
  • Aroma or Flavouring Hops - Once again these do not refer to any specific type of hop. Aroma or flavouring hops are just hops that are added near the end of the boiling phase, usually within the 15 minutes left. With only a short period of time, not a lot of bitterness is gained from them, but their aroma and flavours are imparted into the beer. 
  • Dry Hopping - Dry hopping involves adding hops into the fermented beer rather than during the wort making phase. This results in more intense hop flavours when it is finished. 

  • Water

    Water often makes up over 90% of any given beer and can’t be overlooked in homebrewing! As a key ingredient, the characteristics of the water you use can have a big impact on the beer you make. Your first priority when choosing a water source is of course to ensure that it is sanitary. Unwanted bacteria can easily contaminate beer and ruin your hard work. Other questions to ask yourself when choosing a water source are: 

    • Is my water chlorinated?
    • What is the pH level of my water?
    • Is my water hard or soft? 
    • Are there any minerals and nutrients present in my water? 

    In general, your water for homebrewing should be dechlorinated. Minerals and nutrients are beneficial to the yeast you depend on for fermentation. Different beer styles may call for different water profiles. This is a more advanced topic. If you are using city water, focusing on the dechlorination of water is what is most important part in home beer making. For more information on water, such as how to dechlorinate or alter pH, see our post all about water used in homebrewing beer. 

    And those are the 4 main ingredients of beer making. If you think it might be difficult to craft a recipe from scratch while taking into consideration all four, don’t worry. In the “Methods” section we will highlight different brewing techniques and introduce some products that take care of some of the work for you. 

    Necessary Brewing Supplies for Brewing Your Own Beer

    Cleaners and Sanitizers

    Before we move on to talk about equipment, methods, and process, it’s important to note a few things about sterilizers and cleaners. For one, proper sanitation of equipment will often make the difference between a good batch of beer and bad one. Sanitize, Sanitize, Sanitize! It doesn’t matter how good the recipe is; if it becomes contaminated with unsavoury bacteria it won’t taste good.

    That being said, there are a few things to take into consideration when cleaning and sterilizing your equipment. To begin with, what’s the difference? Simply put, cleaning involves removing physical contamination like stains and caked on material that you can see with the naked eye. Sanitizing involves making sure as much bacteria as possible is removed from your equipment, usually with the aid of a sanitizing product. There are a number of products like this to help you:

  • No-Rinse Sanitizers: These are often the products of choice for home brewers. No-rinse sanitizers like Aseptox or Five Star San can safely sterilize all sorts of materials such as glass, plastic, and stainless steel, and need only to drip dry before use. In addition, many have a foaming action which can help clean the inside of scratches and cracks where bacteria festers. The benefit of no-rinse sanitizers are two-fold, not only do they sanitize, they also leave behind nutrients that actually help in the beer making fermentation process. 
  • Chlorine: Chlorine products like diversol (AKA B-Brite) are excellent cleaners and are good at removing caked on materials and stains. However, it’s important to note that when using a chlorine product, you will have to rinse your equipment thoroughly afterwards, and chlorine can be harmful to stainless steel as it causes it to corrode. 
  • Iodine: Products like Iodophor can sanitize equipment when left to soak, but exposure to high levels of iodine may affect the taste of beer if the equipment is not rinsed or thoroughly dried afterwards. In addition, it may stain plastics. 

  • Want more information on cleaning and sterilizing?

    The Two Phases of Brewing Beer 

    In beer making there are two main phases that take place:

    1. The creation of the wort by extracting sugars and flavours from grains and hops 
    2. The fermentation of wort into beer that is then stored for drinking. 

    Each of these processes requires different equipment. However, different products, such as sterile wort kits, concentrated beer kits, and partial-mash recipes allow you skip all or part of the first stage. Therefore you don’t necessarily need all the equipment that will be reviewed here to make beer - depending on the method you choose, you may only need the equipment necessary for fermentation and bottling.  

    The different methods will be explained in the following section, but first we will go over the equipment:

    Brewing Supplies for Creating Wort

    The creation of wort from the basic ingredients of malted grains, hops, and water centers primarily around a heat source such as a gas burner or stove top. There are numerous methods to create wort using different equipment, but here are the basics:

  • Mill - Milling your grains is the first step in the process, and involves simply cracking the grains apart so that their sugars can be extracted later. There are many different types of mills available for purchase. But some suppliers will provide the service of milling your grains for you in-house for a small added service charge. Note that once a grain has been milled, it goes stale faster and loses its aromas - it is best to mill your grains shortly before you plan to brew (generally within a week). 
  • Cooking Pot or Kettle -  You’ll need this for the mashing and boiling stages where the sugar is extracted and the hops are added. A large stainless steel pot or steel kettle with a spigot is a good start. Note that whatever the vessel you use, it will have to be able to withstand high heat for boiling and should be a few gallons larger than the amount of beer you are brewing in it (the grains add volume and at boiling stage it will foam up a lot). The ideal cooking vessel would have a false bottom so that the grains, or bag they are in do not risk burning, and also a filtering spigot to separate the grains from the liquid. 
  • Thermometer Probe - Monitoring the temperature of a mash is very important as sugars can only be extracted from malt at a specific heat (that will be specified in a recipe). In addition, overheating can result in off flavours. So you will need a thermometer that can measure the temperature of your pot or kettle.  
  • An Instrument for Straining/Separating Grains from Mash - Ideally your cooking vessel will have a spigot with a filtering mechanism, but if not then you will need to find a way to separate the liquid in your mash from the spent grains - keeping in mind that both will be very very hot. A lautering tun is designed for this specific purpose. If you do not have a spigot on your kettle or a lautering tun, a good idea is to have a durable mesh bag (link) that the grains can sit in. This way the bag can simply be removed from the pot or kettle along with the grains. The only drawback of this is that some grain particles may be left behind if the bag is not tight, and confining a large amount of grains in a bag when all-grain brewing may reduce the efficiency of sugar extraction. 

  • Note: If transferring very hot or boiling liquids, make sure that the tubing meets heat requirements. Be careful! You may easily burn yourself and some plastics can warp in extreme heat. 

  • A Hop Bag - In the boiling stage, you will add hops to bitter the beer, and will want a way to remove them easily from the wort when it is finished, having a mesh hop bag will help with this. 
  • A Wort Chiller - When you are at the end of this process and the wort is complete, you will want to cool it to the desired fermentation temperature as quickly as possible. Having a wort chiller can help greatly with this, especially if brewing a large batch as it will take time to cool down naturally. Another option is to surround your pot/kettle with ice water bath. 

  • These are the basic equipment you will need to create wort from scratch. To avoid some of the hassle while still having complete control over the recipe and fresh ingredients, there are products that have all of these things built into one. The Grain Father All-In-One Brewing System is an excellent option which you can load your ingredients into. It continuously measures the time and temperature, controls the different processes, and will even add the hops in at the specified time and rate. To top it off it can be controlled with your phone! 

    Brewing Supplies for Fermenting and Storing your Beer

     In general, the basic equipment for this stage can be broken down into 3 categories: 

    • Containers
    • Stoppers
    • Tools

    Containers: When making beer you will need a minimum of 2 kinds of containers, and possibly a third:

    • A primary fermenter to begin the fermentation in. Buckets tend to make great primary fermenters because they are easy to clean and have extra space for blow off when the beer is very foamy.
    • A secondary fermenter to stabilize and condition the beer in. Secondary fermenters should be glass or plastic carboys with minimal headspace, so that the beer isn’t exposed to too much air. 
    • If you don’t plan on conditioning your beer for very long before bottling, you can also opt for ‘Single-Stage Fermenting,’ where you only use one container. Some customers have found that using a conical fermenter is advantageous for this type of brewing. 
    • Vessels to store and serve the beer. Bottles or kegs are necessary to carbonate and store the beer in when it is finished. 

    Closures/Stoppers: These are used to protect the beer from contamination and aeration during fermentation and after bottling. When beer is in the primary and secondary fermenters you will want to have an airlock and rubber bung. These will seal the beer from outside contaminants, while also letting the gasses from fermentation to escape. Plastic caps, crown caps, or kegs can then be used to seal the beer when it is finished. 

    Tools: There are plenty of beer making tools that make the experience easier and can be used to enhance the quality of the beer you produce. However, if minimalism is what you’re after there are only a few that are absolutely necessary. They are:

    • A hydrometer - to measure the sugar content of the wort.
    • A test tube - to use with the hydrometer.
    • A thermometer - to measure temperature. 
    • A siphon - to transfer beer between the containers and into bottles.
    • A capper - if you capping glass beer bottles
    • A brush - to clean carboys. 

    If this is your first time don’t fret, Danny’s has a number of all-in-one starter equipment kit ready to pick-up in store or ship. Browse equipment kits here. 

    Beer Making Methods

    As mentioned before, there are several methods of making beer to choose from. Regardless of the method you pick there is a world of opportunities to try new styles and influence the flavours you want in your very own craft beer. The four main methods of brewing are from sterile wort, concentrated wort kits, partial mash kits, and all-grain brewing. The basics of each will be reviewed here:

    Sterile Wort Kits

    Using Sterile Wort kits, such as Festa Brew boxes, are an excellent no fuss way to enjoy great tasting beer at home and are great for first-time brewers, or for those who just don’t have a lot of time to brew. Each box contains a 23L (6 gallon) bladder full of pre-hopped, ready-to-go wort, along with a specific craft series dry beer yeast, and instructions. It takes care of the entire first stage of wort creation for you, so all you have to do is ferment it into beer and store it in bottles or kegs. After that, it’s all about the enjoyment. Sterile Wort Kits are available in a wide variety of flavours such as Wheat Ale, Blonde Lager, and Double Oatmeal Stout.

    Concentrated Wort Kits 

    Concentrated Wort Kits often come in cans such as Coopers DIY Beer kits, or more recently in brewery pouches by Mangrove Jack’s. Like sterile wort kits, the contents of these kits is pre-hopped so you don’t have to worry about the wort creation stage. They also usually create 23L (6 gallons) and include brewers yeast and instructions. To make these kits, you have to reconstitute them, or in other words add water to them and mix them thoroughly. They also require you to use sugar such as dextrose or dry malt extract prior to fermentation.

    Partial Mash Kits

    These kits or recipes are the best of both worlds between all-grain brewing and pre-hopped wort. They cut out the hardest parts of wort creation (milling and mashing for sugar extraction), while also giving you more control over the other ingredients. Partial mash kits tend to include liquid and/or dry malt extract, specialty malts, hops, specific craft brewing yeast, and instructions. They may also require dextrose for additional sugar, and of course water. 

    Brewing this way still lets you skip the mashing stage and gives you a compact kit and set of instructions, but also sets you up to explore the world of brewing a little further. Since the ingredients are separated, they are easily customizable - want to use more or less hops or a different kind of hops altogether? Go for it! Want to add in more specialty malt, it’s your choice! Want to pick a different yeast? Why not? 

    If your interested in partial mash kits and recipes, check out some of our own - ready to ship or pick-up in store! 

    All-Grain Brewing

    Brewing from all-grain is the original method of beer making, and it is here where the world of beer really opens up with an infinite number of possibilities. It’s exciting to know that crafting recipes and your own original beers with basic fresh ingredients is something you can do right at home! However, if it is your first fermenting alcohol at home, it can be a daunting process to get the hang of. If you are brand new to all of this, it’s recommended to start with a kit - it’ll give you a chance to experience the process in a more guided way before jumping right in. 

    Disclaimers aside, all-grain brewing entails creating the wort from scratch. The specifics of the beer making process will be explained in the following section, but the benefit of all-grain brewing is clear: complete control over what and how much beer you make. 

    To browse our fresh ingredients and recipes see here. 

    The Basic Beer Making Process

    As mentioned earlier, there are two distinct phases of the beer brewing process. The creation of wort, and the fermentation and storage of the beer. No matter the style of beer you are making the process is generally the same. In this section we will break down the process of those two phases. If you are using a sterile wort, concentrated wort, or partial mash kit you can simply follow the instructions on how to mix the ingredients together and then skip to the second section: Fermentation and Storage. 

    10 Steps to Creating Wort for Beer Making

  • Gathering Ingredients - When brewing wort from scratch the process is engrossing. Once you begin you will not want to have to pause to get ingredients you’re missing. Make sure that you have all the hops, grains, adjuncts, yeast, water and so on before you start brewing. 
  • Set up - Once you’re ready to go ensure that you get set up. All your equipment should be sanitized and in working order. For a list of necessary equipment see the phase one equipment section above. 
  • Milling - The first step in making wort is milling the grain. You’ll have to crack the grains so that sugar can be extracted from them in the mash. If you have a mill, that’s perfect! But if not, you can get them milled at Danny’s Wine and Beer Supplies for a small service fee. 
  • Mashing - This is where the fun begins. Mashing involves steeping your grains in hot water to extract the sugars and flavour from them. This process usually lasts an hour to an hour and a half.

  • You will want to heat the required amount of water in your pot or kettle first. Recipes specify the exact temperature you want, usually somewhere between 145-158°F (63-70° C). If the temperature is too low or too high, it can have adverse effects on the flavour and sugar extraction of the mash. For this reason you’ll want to constantly monitor the temperature of the mash with a thermometer and stir it occasionally to prevent large temperature differences between the top and bottom of your heating element. As mentioned above, if you don’t have a lautering tun or kettle with a spigot, you may want to place your grains in a mesh bag during this phase. 

  • Straining/Lautering - After you have completed the mash you will want to separate the spent grains in your pot or kettle from the liquid portion of the mash that will form the base for your wort. If you have a spigoted kettle or lautering tun you will want to drain the liquid portion into a secondary container. If you are using a grain bag, simply remove the bag. Do not discard it yet, there is still sugar to get out! 
  • Sparging (Rinsing) - Once you have separated your grains out, you will want to get out as much sugar that is left in them as possible. This is done through a process called sparging. Simply put, you will want to run more clean “sparge” water through the grains and into the container holding the liquid portion of your mash. If you have a spigoted kettle  or lautering tun pour water through it, or pour water through your grain bag. Since you will have to bring this all to a boil, and large temperature fluctuations are to be avoided, heating your sparge water is beneficial. 
  • Boiling - Now that the sugar has been extracted from the grains, you are working with just the liquid mash. In this stage you will bring the mash to a boil usually for at least 1 hour. Note that you will want to monitor the process because it will create a large amount of foam that may boil over, especially when it first begins to boil. 
  • Hop Additions - During the boiling phase, you will want to add hops. Each recipe is different, but often bittering hops are added after 15 minutes of boiling, and aroma hops are added after 45 minutes of boiling. The use of a mesh hop bag will make it easier to remove the hops after the boiling is done. Otherwise, they may form a sludge and cake on to your pot or kettle. 
  • Chilling - Once your boil is finished, the wort is complete. But it is far too hot to begin fermenting. You will want to chill it as quickly as possible to avoid contamination and aid in the clarification of the wort. Using a wort chiller can greatly help, otherwise, surrounding your pot or kettle in ice water can be somewhat effective depending on the volume of your wort. 
  • Transferring - Once your wort is chilled to the desired fermentation temperature you will want to transfer it into your primary fermentation container. 

  • 7 Steps to Fermenting and Storing Your Beer

  • Set up: Having all of your equipment on hand and ready before you start makes the process much easier to manage. At the beginning, you should at least have your chilled wort and primary fermenter ready. 
  • Cleaning/Sterilizing: Often, the main difference between a good batch of beer and a bad one, is simply how clean and sterile the equipment you are using is. It is very important to clean and sterilize all of your equipment before you begin. To browse cleaning and sterilizing agents see here. 
  • Primary Fermentation: This is where the fun starts. Once you’ve rehydrated your yeast and have your wort in the primary fermenter, you can pitch in the yeast and let the magic begin. It won’t happen in an instant so be patient; if it takes a day or so before it seems to begin fermenting rapidly that is okay, just be sure to monitor the temperature and avoid large fluctuations and extremes of hot or cold. This step often takes a few days to a week, but really just depends on the type of yeast you are using, the temperature, and the amount of sugar in your wort. Monitor the sugar level over time with the hydrometer.
  • Secondary Fermentation: Once fermentation has calmed, you will want to transfer your beer from the primary fermenter into the secondary one with a sanitized siphon. It is okay if the beer is not completely fermented through yet, it will still have time here. The purpose of this is to ensure that harmful exposure to air is kept at a minimum. This stage is often a few days to a week. If you are doing ‘single-stage fermentation’ in a suitable container then skip this step. 
  • Conditioning/Stabilizing: Once fermentation has stopped and the hydrometer’s gravity reading is stable and at the desired level; you may want to let the beer condition (age) or stabilize before bottling. It’s fine to leave it in the secondary fermenter at this point. It’ll help to reduce movement so that the beer can clear. This step is to allow the beer to mature a little and to lose some of the harsh aromas it may have developed during fermentation prior to bottling. For beer you do not want to add any sort of preservatives that may harm the yeast. If you are bottling the beer, you need the yeast to be healthy and alive so that it may carbonate in the bottles. 
  • Priming: If you do not have a keg you will need to add sugar either to the bottles or just prior to bottling to get the beer to carbonate. This process is called priming. Just like during fermentation, the yeast in your beer will react with the sugar and produce the CO2 responsible for carbonation. Recipes and kit instructions will often specify how to prime the specific beer you are making. In general, you can add sugar directly into the bottles with a measuring spoon or directly into your container and stir so long as the bulk of the yeast bed is removed. Sugar tablets make this convenient and can simply be dropped into bottles. 
  •  Bottling and Storage: Again, always make sure that all of the bottles, siphon, containers, etc. are sterile. If bottling your beer, you will want to seal your bottles with air-tight seals such as plastic PET caps for plastic bottles, metal crown caps for glass, or EZ caps. Once bottled, beer should be stored somewhere within the yeast’s comfort range for at least 1 week to aid in carbonation. Afterwards it should be stored somewhere cool-cold with a stable temperature. For more information on kegging your beer see here. 

  • You’ve brewed your beer! Now, it’s time to enjoy the fruits of your labour. Do you have a favourite beer recipe? Have you made beer from the kits we discussed? Did you enjoy the process? Let us know in the comments below!

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